|Information Letter 2 (July 8, 2002)
Dear Students and others.
In this letter you will find working questions for the literature you have received earlier.
In a later Information Letter we will discuss the written assignments - as of yet please just use the questions as they are!
Below you will find WWW-addresses relevant for the excursion in late August:
- presenting the heritage area we will visit
- presenting the local municipality of Karmøy
Some of the information will be in English. You will - we hope - be able to make use of the pictures of the area.
Heritage area of Avaldnes:
Local municipality of Karmøy:
So nice to see you at at the video conference!
Have a good summer holiday.
I will be at my office until very late July.
Questions + relevant literature: see also attached Word file):
Part I: Introduction and Overview (Long Perpective)
D. Kirby & Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen: ”Seafaring and Power” in The Baltic and the North Seas, 103-142, 291-296, Routledge, London, 2000.
B. Myhre: ”Germanic kingdoms bordering on two empires” in Kings of the North Sea, 41-54, Leuwarden 2000.
J. Bjørklund: ”Trade and Cultural Exchange in 17th and 18th centuries” in The North Sea – A Highway of Economic and Cultural Exchange, Norw. Univ. Press, Oslo 1985.
Chr. Westerdahl: ”From land to sea, from sea to land. On transport zones, borders and human space”, in Down the River to the Sea, 3-20, Polish Maritime Museum, Gdansk 2000.
The North Sea can be interpreted as a cultural, economical and ideological highway connecting cultures rather than separating them. Find some examples that can strengthen this hypothesis.
Make some suggestions of how to integrate the protection of the cultural heritage in the process of coastal management.
Make a summary of the first or the third article above.
Part II: Middle Ages
Part II.A: Harbours, landscape, and trade
M. Welch: ”Trade and trading places around the North Sea” in Kings of the North Sea, 67-78, Leuwarden 2000.
R. Reinders: ”Medieval water routes and harbour sites in the Netherlands” in Maritime Topography and the Medieval Town, 119-136, Copenhagen 1998.
D. Meier: ”Livestock and trade – the landscape of Schleswig-Holstein\'s west coast in the first millenium”, in Kings of the North Sea, 133-142, Leuwarden 2000.
A. Christophersen: ”Ports and trade in Norway during the transition to historical time” in Aspects of Maritime Scandinavia 200 – 1200, Roskilde 1991.
Part II.B: Ships and technology
O. Crumlin-Pedersen: ”Ships as indicators of trade in Northern Europe” in Maritime Topography and the Medieval Town 600 - 1200, 11-20, Copenhagen 1998.
D. Ellmers: ”Frisian and Hanseatic Merchants Sailed the Cog” in The North Sea – A Highway of Economic and Cultural Exchange, Norw. Univ. Press, Oslo 1985.
S. McGrail: ” Medieval boats, ships, landing places” in Waterfront archeology in Britain and Northern Europe, 17-23, Council for British Archeology, 1981.
Part II.C: Lighthouses and Seamarks
J. Naish: ”The Hanseatic League and the Organisation of Seamarks 1250 – 1550” in Seamarks – Their History and Development, 25-36, Stanford Maritime, London 1985.
J. Naish: ”Fire Towers and Primitive Lights” in Seamarks – Their History and Development, 25-36, Stanford Maritime, London 1985.
Part 2 A
Describe the major differences between the trading networks in the Iron Age and the medieval period.
Part 2 A
Summarise the main points in one of the three national cases above (Dutch, German, Norwegian). Try to highlight what you think is particularly characteristic and (perhaps) different from the two other cases.
Part 2 B
Describe how changes in trade or economical systems might have influenced the development of different ship types.
Part 2 B
Viking ships and Hanseatic cogs: main characteristic of the two ship types.
(You may want to point to developments within the two main types also).
The connection (or relationship) between ship types and harbour structures. Discuss.
Part 2 C
What were the usual types of seamarks in the middle ages?
Part III: mainly 1800-2000
Part III.A: Fishing
D. Kirby & Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen: ”Fishing” in The Baltic and the North Seas, 164-185, 298-300, Routledge, London, 2000.
A. Hjorth Rasmussen: ”The Triumph of Deep Sea Fishing in the North Sea” in The North Sea – A Highway of Economic and Cultural Exchange, 217-226, Norw. Univ. Press, Oslo 1985.
Part III.B: Ships and Trade
A. Pearsall: ”Steam Enters the North Sea” in The North Sea – A Highway of Economic and Cultural Exchange, 195-216, Norw. Univ. Press, Oslo 1985.
Part III.D: Gender
D. Kirby & Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen: ”Maritime Women” in The Baltic and the North Seas, 231-253, 312-318, Routledge, London, 2000.
Part III.D: Harbours
L. Scholl: ”The Container Terminals in Bremerhaven and Bremen in North Sea Ports and Harbours, 159-183, Esbjerg 1992.
A. H. Flierman: ”Change and Continuity in the Port of Rotterdam”, in North Sea Ports and Harbours, 201-223, Esbjerg 1992.
(a) Give a survey of the North Sea fisheries from the late medieval period to ca. 1900.
(b) Give a survey of changes in North Sea fisheries after mid 1800 (1850/60 onwards).
Part 3 B
What were the advantages of steamships compared to sailing ships?
(If you are of a romantic mind: what were the advantages of sailing ships compared to steamships?).
Part 3 C
Past maritime cultures are said to be a homogenous entity. Can the concept of GENDER diversity modify this statement? Discuss the importance of GENDER with reference to the article "Maritime Women" in the literature list. You are also encouraged to make use of material based on visit to the museum (Bremerhaven) or other relevant material.
Part 3 D
Give a description of the changes in the port(s) of Bremen/Bremerhaven that occurred in the middle of the 20th century.
Part 3 D
Similarities and differences between Bremen/Bremerhaven on one hand and Rotterdam on the other.
(You may want to use additional literature to answer this question).
Make some suggestions of how to integrate the protection of the cultural heritage in the process of coastal management. You are free to use examples e.g. from the Oldenburg area, or from Avaldsnes, or from the report "Coastal Cultural Heritages - the challenges and proposals" given to you at the lecture in Avaldnes.
The answer to this question is, as you will understand, related to the future role as a player in the active management of the coastal